Charcoal in Africa

They are turning trees into charcoal in Africa. If they were smart they could get a grant from Greenpeace and call it BioCharcoal.

Most of the trees have been cut down,” he said recently, hours after securing only 60 bags of charcoal, below his daily average of 80. “Within five years, all the trees will be gone.”

Trees have been disappearing in a widening arc from Toliara in the past decade. As charcoal producers first culled trees in forests closest to Toliara, leaving villages surrounded only by thickets, the business has shifted to remote areas about 100 miles away, accessible by dirt roads and sometimes waterways.

Biomass Generates More Electricity Than Solar Panels in the US

Stupid and dirty biomass. Produces more CO2 than coal. Lots of particulate matter. Cuts down forests.


“What’s actually happening is we are basically cutting down perfectly healthy, productive trees,” says Tim Searchinger, a research scholar at Princeton University.

In 2015, biomass — which refers to trees or other organic matter burned for fuel — produced more electrical energy in the U.S. than solar panels.



Stupid Europeans and Diesel

Many years ago Europe decided to fight “Global Warming” by encouraging the use of diesel cars because diesel produces a little less CO2 per mile than gasoline engines.

But they are paying a massive price in terms of air pollution.

Diesel car owners could face tax rises to tackle deadly air pollution, a Cabinet minister indicated today.
In an interview with the Evening Standard, Transport Secretary Patrick McLoughlin said it had been a “mistake” for former Labour chancellor Gordon Brown to slash taxes on diesel.

The decision had caused a “dramatic rise” in the number of diesel cars spewing toxic nitrogen oxide (NOx) in London and other cities.

“We have got to look at that,” said the minister. “It is something the Chancellor will need to look at in due course.”

Mr Brown cut the duty on low sulphur diesel by 3p in his 2001 Budget — a move unveiled shortly before the general election — and also reduced company car taxes on diesels, billed as a bid to help meet climate change targets.

However, although diesel engines produce less carbon, which is blamed for global warming, they emit up to four times as much NOx and 20 times as many particulates — minute particles that penetrate and damage the lungs, heart and brain. About 9,400 Londoners die prematurely every year from breathing the city’s polluted air.


Global Warming May Have Been Caused By Deforestation

Yesterday I wrote about trees being able to seed clouds. Lubos of the Reference Frame takes it further.

It’s been generally thought that the sulfuric acid was almost necessary. Chimneys (or volcano eruptions etc.) should increase cloudiness. However, there have been inconclusive hints in some papers that some organic molecules are enough. You may have worried: How could have the clouds existed in the past, before the chimneys were built?😉

Jasper Kirkby and collaborators have found out that the molecules known as “aroma of the trees” may indeed do the same job and that is decisive in the pristine environments without chimneys.

More precisely, the molecules that can do the job are the “highly oxygenated molecules” (HOMs) which are produced by ozonolysis of α-pinene.

The lesson for “global warming” seems clear: deforestation may decrease the amount of aroma from the trees, and therefore the amount of clouds, and it may therefore lead to global warming.

This may be the explanation of the changes in the 20th century and because the deforestation is over, so may be “global warming”.


So … what other periods of global warming took place?

“The Roman Warm Period or the Roman climatic optimum has been proposed as a period of unusually warm weather in Europe and the North Atlantic that ran from approximately 250 BC to 400 AD”

What is Rome famous for (other than killing and conquering and so on)? Roman baths. What did the heat the baths with? Firewood.

“The baths were BIG; the Baths of Caracalla, completed in 235, could handle 8,000 visitors a day. Its 50 furnaces burned ten tons of wood every day to keep the water warm.

Deforestation was huge in Roman times.

Wood was a primary source of heating and used extensively in industry. Wood fuel constituted about 90 percent of the consumption overall,[citation needed] and was a major factor in Roman deforestation. Wood was essential fuel in industries like mining, smelting, and the making of ceramics.[4] Wood and charcoal were the primary ancient fuels in public facilities, households, public baths and industries that produced light and heat.

Forest areas around mining centers were deforested first, consuming all natural resources around the area of work. Once all the natural resources around the area of production were consumed, wood was then shipped and carried in to supply the furnaces and smelters for the mining centers. Eventually, these centers would shut down and move to areas within Roman territory to repeat the same cycle of deforestation, supplying an ever-growing population and consumption demand.

Deforestation and the fall of Rome :

In the ancient world, fossil fuels were unusual enough to be a curiosity, and certainly did not provide any major heating source. Almost all heating was done by wood and wood products1and while it may not seem like such a major factor it becomes a different story if you think about the Roman baths. The public baths2 were kept constantly at a minimum of 130 degrees Fahrenheit (54 degrees Celsius), and even a very small bath required 228,000lb (103,421kg) of wood per year. The Emperors recognised the importance of the baths in keeping the populace happy, and made keeping them running a primary goal. A whole guild, equipped with 60 ships, was created specifically for the purpose of obtaining bath-heating wood. Large palaces and villas also often had personal central heating systems; one such system has been evaluated and determined to require 2,506,000lb (1,136,722kg) of wood per year in order to properly heat the villa.

Trees Can Seed Clouds!

This discovery is huge. Trees can seed clouds.

Molecules released by trees can seed clouds, two experiments have revealed. The findings, published on 25 May in Nature1, 2 and Science3, run contrary to an assumption that the pollutant sulphuric acid is required for a certain type of cloud formation — and suggest that climate predictions may have underestimated the role that clouds had in shaping the pre-industrial climate.

If the results of the experiments hold up, predictions of future climate change should take them into account, says Reto Knutti, a climate modeller at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich). For 20 or more years, clouds have been the largest source of uncertainty in understanding how manmade emissions affect the atmosphere, he says.

In addition to releasing carbon dioxide, burning fossil fuels indirectly produces sulphuric acid, which is known to seed clouds. So, climate scientists have assumed that since pre-industrial times, there has been a large increase in cloud cover, which is thought to have an overall cooling effect by reflecting sunlight back into space. And they have assumed that this overall cooling effect has partially masked the climate’s underlying sensitivity to rising carbon dioxide levels. The latest experiments suggest that it may have been cloudier in pre-industrial times than previously thought.

If this is so, then the masking effect, and in turn the warming effects of carbon dioxide, might have been overestimated, says Jasper Kirkby, a physicist at the CERN, Europe’s particle-physics laboratory near Geneva, Switzerland, who led one of the experiments.