China Placing A Global Bet On Coal

China dupes the world.

China, known as the world’s biggest polluter, has been taking dramatic steps to clean up and fight climate change.

Sort of.

So why is it also building hundreds of coal-fired power plants in other countries?

Money. And so it can keep conning the suckers.

China’s overseas ventures include hundreds of electric power plants that burn coal, which is a significant emitter of the carbon scientifically linked to climate change. Edward Cunningham, a specialist on China and its energy markets at Harvard University, tells NPR that China is building or planning more than 300 coal plants in places as widely spread as Turkey, Vietnam, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Egypt and the Philippines.

For many years, four huge electric power plants burned coal within the capital city, Beijing, contributing to the city’s choking smog. But within the past four years, all four stopped burning coal.

A visit by NPR on Saturday to one of the plants, the Huaneng Beijing thermal power station, showed that it now burns natural gas

Probably NG from coal gasification which has produces a lot more CO2 for the whole process.

Rest of article here.

Advertisements

Temperature Record Contaminated by UHI

I came across blog posts mentioning two papers about UHI.

Roger Pielke Sr et al  –  Unresolved issues with the assessment of multidecadal global
land surface temperature trends

Essentially the ground temperature is record is so contaminated by UHI that Ocean Heat Content should be the only metric … but if you want to use thermometers you should never use nighttime (Tmin) temps and therefore Tavg should not be used.

Only Tmax should be used.

A major conclusion is that, as a climate metric to
diagnose climate system heat changes (i.e., ‘‘global warming’’),
the surface temperature trend, especially if it includes
the trend in nighttime temperature, is not the most suitable
climate metric. As reported by Pielke [2003], the assessment
of climate heat system changes should be performed using
the more robust metric of ocean heat content changes
rather than surface temperature trends. If temperature
trends are to be retained in order to estimate large-scale
climate system heat changes (including a global average),
the maximum temperature is a more appropriate metric
than using the mean daily average temperature. This paper
presents reasons why the surface temperature is inadequate
to determine changes in the heat content of the Earth’s
climate system.

 

Leeper et al – Impacts of Small-Scale Urban Encroachment on Air Temperature Observations

UHI contaminates the temperature record.

A field experiment was performed in Oak Ridge, TN, with four instrumented towers placed over grass at increasing distances (4, 30, 50, 124, and 300 m) from a built-up area. Stations were aligned in such a way to simulate the impact of small-scale encroachment on temperature observations. As expected, temperature observations were warmest for the site closest to the built environment with an average temperature difference of 0.31 and 0.24 °C for aspirated and unaspirated sensors respectively. Mean aspirated temperature differences were greater during the evening (0.47 °C) than day (0.16 °C). This was particularly true for evenings following greater daytime solar insolation (20+ MJDay−1) with surface winds from the direction of the built environment where mean differences exceeded 0.80 °C. The impact of the built environment on air temperature diminished with distance with a warm bias only detectable out to tower-B’ located 50 meters away.

The experimental findings were comparable to a known case of urban encroachment at a U. S. Climate Reference Network station in Kingston, RI. The experimental and operational results both lead to reductions in the diurnal temperature range of ~0.39 °C for fan aspirated sensors. Interestingly, the unaspirated sensor had a larger reduction in DTR of 0.48 °C. These results suggest that small-scale urban encroachment within 50 meters of a station can have important impacts on daily temperature extrema (maximum and minimum) with the magnitude of these differences dependent upon prevailing environmental conditions and sensing technology.

30 Worst Floods in US History – Most a long time ago

30 Worst Floods in US History

Most a long, long time ago.

30. Hurricane Harvey – 2017
29. Los Angeles flood – 1938
28. Buffalo Creek flood – 1972
27. Hurricane Agnes flood –  1972
26. Southeast U.S. floods – 1998
25. Mill River Dam – 1874
24. Big Thompson Canyon Flood – 1976
23. Pacific tsunami – 1946
22. Brazos River Flood – 1913
21. Floods in eastern U.S. – 1996
20. East Coast floods – 1955
19. Great Northeast Flood – 1936
18. Texas flood – 1921
17. Superstorm Sandy – 2012
16. Black Hills Flood – 1972
15. Mississippi flood – 1927
14. Hurricane Camille and flooding – 1969
13. Brazos River flood – 1899
12. Oregon Heppner flash flood – 1903
11. Miami hurricane and flooding – 1926
10. The Ohio River Flood – 1937
9. Labor Day Hurricane – 1935
8. St. Francis Dam failure – 1928
7. Statewide Ohio flood – 1913
6. New England hurricane and flooding – 1938
5. Hurricane Katrina flooding – 2005
4. South Carolina Sea Islands hurricane – 1893
3. Johnstown flood – 1889
2. South Florida hurricane and flood – 1928
1. Galveston hurricane and storm surge – 1900

Thick Sea Ice is Detrimental to Seals and Polar Bears

Interesting article on Polar Bears.

Arctic studies show less sea ice promotes more photosynthesis. After sea ice had recently decreased by 9%, Stanford scientists determined productivity increased by 30%. More photosynthesis provides more food for fish. More fish feed more seals and fatter seals feed more polar bears.

To remain in the Arctic all winter ringed seals must create several breathing holes. When new thin ice first forms, they bust out several breathing holes using their heads. As winter proceeds they gnaw and claw to keep their holes open. Wherever sea ice survives for several years it becomes too thick to create breathing holes. So, across the Arctic, regions of thick ice contain the fewest seals and fewest bears. In contrast, in the Hudson Bay where new ice must form each year seals and bears are abundant!

Asteroid Apophis is Coming in 10 Years

Update: I got the number of years in the body right but I put 8 in the title. 2029. 10 years. Sorry.

Only 12 years before climate change “destroys” the planet?

No problem … we only have 10 years left anyway. Sure … they say it will miss. But will it really?

April 13, 2029 – a massive, 370-meter wide asteroid known as Apophis will make the closest flyby on record of any known large asteroid, coming to within 31,000 kilometres of Earth’s surface.

Watch below to see the path Apophis will take on its April 2029 close flyby

In the above simulation, Apophis (yellow) flies over the Northern Hemisphere, passing safely over the ring of geostationary satellites (light blue). The orbit of the International Space Station is shown close to the planet (purple).